Trevathan suffered an elbow injury in a win against the Lions on Nov. 10 and hasn't played since. The decision to officially end his season was made after Chicago was eliminated from playoff contention Sunday.
In his place, the Bears elevated cornerback Michael Joseph from the practice squad to the active roster.
Trevathan, 29, has 70 tackles and a sack in nine games this season. He's in the final year of his contract with the Bears, so his time in Chicago could be done.
In another move, the Bears sign receiver Alex Wesley to the practice squad.